Framing (en)

Framing is a psychological effect in communication. It's a cognitive bias which influences our decision making when the same information is formulated differently. in other words, it comes down how a fact or an information is presented.

Main points

  • When two or more options are presented the framing effect comes into play even if the outcome is the same.
  • Second requirement: the options are phrased differently and appeal to our biases.
  • People tend to prefer options which are positively verbalized.
  • People also tend to choose options which higher numbers because they belief that the higher is better.


  1. Aural frames, e.g. the pitch of voices in a debatte
  2. Visual frames, e.g. color, images, fonts, etc.
  3. Value frames, e.g. discounts (percentage vs. specific numeric value of a currency)
  4. Positive and negative frames, e.g. damaging vs. improving your health


  1. If you undergo this operation, you will live. vs. If you don't undergo this operation, you will die.
  2. We manage to place as the fourth-best team in the tournament. vs. We have missed a top three placement in the tournament.
  3. From this intervention 50 percent of the population will benefit. vs. From this intervention 50 percent of the population will be handicapped.

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